Java break statement has three uses :

1) break statement is used in switch to terminate (exit)case statement sequence .
2) break statement is used to exit a loop at specified condition.
3) break statement is used as ' civilized ' form of goto . That means used to terminate a block of code.
Let us see all three uses one by one :-

  • 1) Break statement is used in switch

    break statement is used in switch to terminate (exit) case statement sequence .

    • Note : if we don't use break in switch then there will be a fall-through.

    Example)
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     //example of break statement in switch
    class TestingSwitch
    {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
     int n=3;
     switch(n)
     {
        case 0:
        System.out.println("Zero");
        break;
    
        case 1:
        System.out.println("One");
        break;
    
        case 2:
        System.out.println("Two");
        break;
    
        case 3:
        System.out.println("Three");
        break;
    
        default :
        System.out.println("Default case"); 
     }   
    }
    }
    
    Output:
    Three
  • 2) Using break to Exit a Loop

    break statement is used to exit a loop at specified condition. When a break statement is encountered inside a loop, the loop is terminated and program control resumes at the next statement following the loop. Here is a simple example:

    Example)
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    //using break for exit for loop
    class Example {
        public static void main(String arr[]) {
            for (int i = 1; i <= 10; i++)
            {
                if (i == 5) 
                {
                    break;//terminate the loop if i==5
                }
                System.out.println("Value of i =" + i);
            }
            System.out.println("Loop Completed...");
        }
    }
    
    Output:
    Value of i =1
    Value of i =2
    Value of i =3
    Value of i =4
    Loop Completed...
    

    Basically break statement is used to terminate the infinite loops. for example

    
    //using break for exit infinite loop
    class Example {
        public static void main(String arr[]) { 
                int i=1;              
                //creating infinite  while loop
                while(true)
                {
                    if(i==10)
                    {
                    break;//terminating loop if i==10
                    }
                    System.out.println("i = "+i);
                    i++; //incrementing i
    
                }       
            System.out.println("Loop Completed...");
        }
    }
    

    Output:
    i = 1
    i = 2
    i = 3
    i = 4
    i = 5
    i = 6
    i = 7
    i = 8
    i = 9
    Loop Completed...
  • 3) Using break as a Form of Goto

    The break statement can also be used as ' civilized ' form of the goto statement. By using this form of break, we can break out of one or more blocks of code. These blocks need not be part of a loop or a switch. They can be any block.
    We can specify where execution will resume , because this form of break works with a label.
    The general form of the labeled break statement is shown here:

     break label ; 
    Let us see the example :

    Example)
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    //using break for exit labeled block
    class Example {
        public static void main(String arr[]) { 
                boolean f=true;
                 first : {
                    second :{
                        third :{
    
                             System.out.println("Third Block");
                             if(f)
                             {
                                break second;//exiting second block also
                             }
                        }
                         System.out.println("Second Block");
                    }
                     System.out.println("First Block");
                 }
    
            System.out.println("Completed...");
        }
    }
    
    Output:
    Third Block
    First Block
    Completed...
    

One of the most common uses for a labeled break statement is to exit from nested loops
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//example of terminating outer loop
class Example {
    public static void main(String arr[]) { 
           Outer : for (int i=1;i<=10 ;i++ ) {
                Inner:  for (int j=1;j<=10 ;j++ ) {
                    if(j==5){
                        break Outer;
                    }
                    System.out.println(i+ " , "+j);
                    }
                    
                }             
        System.out.println("Loop Completed...");
    }
}

Output:

1 , 1
1 , 2
1 , 3
1 , 4
Loop Completed...

What next?

The next topic is Continue Statement in java

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